What Is Retinal Detachment??
The retina is a very light-sensitive layer of tissue that resides inside of the eye and sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal detachment describes a medical emergency situation in which a thin layer of tissue i.e. the retina at the back of the eye pulls away from its normal position. During the Retinal detachment, retinal cells separate from the layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nourishment and other important compounds.
In some cases, there may be small areas of the retina that gets torn away these areas are called retinal tears or retinal breaks, can lead to retinal detachment If this retinal detachment goes untreated or the retina is not reattached soon for a longer time, then the risk of permanent vision loss increases in the eye exponentially.
What Are The Different Types Of Retinal Detachment And Its Cause??
- Rhegmatogenous:– In this type, there is a tear or break in the retina that allows fluid to get under the retina and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the pigmented cell layer that nourishes the retina. These types of retinal detachments are the most commonly seen.
- Exudative:- These are Frequently caused when there is some kind of retinal diseases, including inflammatory disorders or injury/trauma to the eye. In this type, fluid leaks into the area underneath the retina, but there are no tears or breaks in the retina. These types are most commonly seen when a person goes through some major accident.
- Tractional:- In this type of detachment, scar tissue on the retina’s surface contracts and causes the retina to separate from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). This type of detachment is less common.
What Are The Symptoms Of Retinal Detachment??
Retinal detachment though is quite painless. But there are many warning signs that almost always appear before any sort of retinal detachment has occurred or even if the case has advanced, such as:
- The most common symptom is a significant increase in the number of floaters, the bits of debris in the eye that make us see things floating in front of us, usually like little strings of transparent bubbles or rods that follow our field of vision as our eyes turn. They may see what looks like a ring of hairs or floaters on the peripheral side of the vision.
- Blurred vision occasionally.
- A transparent curtain-like shadow over your visual field.
- Flashes of light in one or both eyes.
- Gradually reduce the peripheral side of vision.
- A heavy feeling in the eye.
- Straight lines start to appear curved.
What Are The Few Risk Factors??
Though retinal detachment can occur due to maint 3 reasons mentioned above Rhegmatogenous Tractional & Exudative there are few risk factor involved in it due to which the risk of retinal detachment increases and those are:-
- It can be heredity i.e. Family history of retinal detachment.
- Aging is one of the most common risks factors of retinal detachment for people over age 50.
- Extreme nearsightedness or having myopia eyes.
- Previous retinal detachment in one or the other eye.
- Past history severe eye injury or accidents.
- Past history eye surgery, such as cataract removal or glaucoma, etc.
- Previous other eye disease or disorder, including retinoschisis, uveitis or thinning of the peripheral retina also called as lattice degeneration.
What Is Retinal Tear??
Retinal Tear is the case that comes before a full detachment of the retina from the eye. It usually has the same symptoms. If your retina gets torn due to some reasons might be an accident or any sort of injury then in that condition, the fluid inside the eye can leak underneath and separate the retina from its underlying tissue. That’s retinal detachment.
If early steps are taken and you went to the eye doctor so in that condition doctors can fix that retinal tear in the office itself with a minor and simple laser procedure. If you don’t take any immediate steps and if the retina gets detached fully, you’ll need more serious surgery to repair it.
How to prevent Retinal Detachment??
Most cases of retinal detachment are related to aging and related vitreous detachment or other reason might be some accidents or eye injury. So these are hard to predict or prevent.
However, prevention of retinal detachment on a minor level can be done by having a regular routine eye check-up every year or two. These regular eye check-ups can help your eye specialist to detect any changes such as inflammation, thinning or tears in the retina which could progress to retinal detachment and if any visible symptoms will be there then it can be treated immediately before anything serious can occur.
How To Diagnose Retinal Detachment??
Surgery will be necessary to find all the retinal breaks and seal them and to relieve present and future vitreoretinal traction, or pulling. Without surgery, there is a high risk of total vision loss.
- Laser surgery, or photocoagulation:- The laser burns around the retinal tear that results in scarring tissue that then fuses the tissue back together.
- Cryotherapy: Cryosurgery or freezing, involves applying extreme cold to destroy abnormal, diseased, or trone off tissue. This procedure helps in producing a delicate scar that helps connect the retina to the wall of the eye.
- Scleral buckling: The area of the eye from where the retina has detached, very thin bands made up of silicone rubber or sponge are sewn onto the sclera the outside white of the eye and then the tissue around the area may be frozen or lasers may be used to scar the tissue.
- Vitrectomy: The vitreous gel is removed from the eye and a gas bubble or silicone oil bubble is used to hold the retina in place. Then the wound is stitched. Silicon oil needs to be removed in 2 to 8 months after the procedure.
- Pneumatic retinopexy: This can be used if the detachment is uncomplicated. In this procedure the surgeon freezes the torn area, using cryopexy, before injecting a bubble into the vitreous cavity of the eye, this pushes the retina back against the tear and the detached area, preventing further flow of fluid behind the retina. After some days, the pressure eventually makes the retina reattach itself to the wall of the back of the eye.
The case of Retinal detachment is increasing day by day every year alone in India more than a million cases are seen. According to an estimate that around 90 percent of treatments for retinal detachment are successful, although some people will need further treatment in case of not fully reattachment of the tissue. Get your eye checked-up with Top and best doctors listed on Medishala. Book your Online Appointment Today.